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Government of India
Ministry of Health and Family Welfare
11-February-2014 13:49 IST
Decline in Rates of Maternal and Infant Mortality

As per the Sample Registration System (SRS), Registrar General of India (RGI-SRS), Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) has shown a decline from 212 per 100,000 live births in the period 2007-09 to 178 per 100,000 live births in the period 2010- 12 and Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) has declined from 47 per 1000 live births in the year 2010 to 42 per 1000 live births in 2012.

 

The RGI-SRS provides MMR for the country and major states at 3-year intervals. The latest data on MMR for 2007-09 and 2010-12 is given in table below:-

 

SRS

2007-09

2010-12

MMR

212

178

 

The latest data on IMR for the years 2010, 2011 and 2012 is given in table below:-

 

 

SRS, 2010

SRS, 2011

SRS, 2012

IMR

47

44

42

 

The State /UTs-wise MMR for 2007-09 & 2010-12 and IMR for last 3 years are given in table below respectively:-

 

Infant Mortality Rate (per 1000 live births)

(Source: RGI (SRS) 2010, 2011, 2012)

 

            S.N.

State /UT

 

Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) per 1000 live births

 SRS, 2010

SRS, 2011

SRS, 2012

India

47

44

42

1

Bihar

48

44

43

2

Chhattisgarh

51

48

47

3

Himachal Pradesh

40

38

36

4

Jammu & Kashmir

43

41

39

5

Jharkhand

42

39

38

6

Madhya Pradesh

62

59

56

7

Odisha

61

57

53

8

Rajasthan

55

52

49

9

Uttar Pradesh

61

57

53

10

Uttarakhand

38

36

34

11

Arunachal Pradesh

31

32

33

12

Assam

58

55

55

13

Manipur

14

11

10

14

Meghalaya

55

52

49

15

Mizoram

37

34

35

16

Nagaland

23

21

18

17

Sikkim

30

26

24

18

Tripura

27

29

28

19

Andhra Pradesh

46

43

41

20

Goa

10

11

10

21

Gujarat

44

41

38

22

Haryana

48

44

42

23

Karnataka

38

35

32

24

Kerala

13

12

12

25

Maharashtra

28

25

25

26

Punjab

34

30

28

27

Tamil Nadu

24

22

21

28

West Bengal

31

32

32

29

A & N Islands

25

23

24

30

Chandigarh

22

20

20

31

D & N Haveli

38

35

33

32

Daman & Diu

23

22

22

33

Delhi

30

28

25

34

Lakshadweep

25

24

24

35

Pondicherry

22

19

17

 

 

Maternal Mortality Ratio: India and State wise

(Source: RGI (SRS) 2007-09, 2010-12)

Major State

MMR(SRS)

 (2007-09)

MMR(SRS)

 (2010-12)

India Total *

212

178

Assam

390

328

Bihar

261

219

Jharkhand

261

219

MP

269

230

Chhattisgarh

269

230

Orissa

258

235

Rajasthan

318

255

Uttar Pradesh

359

292

Uttaranchal

359

292

Andhra Pradesh

134

110

Karnataka

178

144

Kerala

81

66

Tamil Nadu

97

90

Gujarat

148

122

Haryana

153

146

Maharashtra

104

87

Punjab

172

155

West Bengal

145

117

*Others

160

136

 

*: Includes Others

 

 

As per the RGI-SRS report titled “Maternal Mortality in India: 1997-2003 trends, causes and risk factors”, major causes of maternal deaths in the country are haemorrhage (38%), sepsis (11%), hypertensive disorders (5%), obstructed labour (5%), abortion (8%) and other Conditions (34%) , which includes anaemia.

 

Maternal Mortality is also influenced by other determinants which include low literacy, lack of spacing between births, early age at marriage & child bearing, high parity, cultural misconceptions, economic dependency of women etc.

 

The main reasons for Infant Mortality in India as per the Registrar General of India (2001-03) are perinatal conditions (46%), respiratory infections (22%), diarrhoeal diseases (10%), other infectious and parasitic diseases (8%) and congenital anomalies (3.1%).

 

Under the National Health Mission (NHM), the key steps taken by the Government of India to accelerate the pace of decline in maternal & infant mortality are:

 

        Demand promotion through Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY), a conditional cash transfer scheme to promote institutional deliveries

        Providing resources for operationalization of sub-centers, Primary Health Centers, Community Health Centers and District Hospitals for providing 24x7 basic and comprehensive obstetric care, neonatal, infant and child care services

        Strengthening of Facility based newborn care by setting up Newborn care corners (NBCC) in all health facilities where deliveries take place; Special New Born Care Units (SNCUs) at District Hospitals and New Born Stabilization Units (NBSUs) at First Referral Units for the care of sick newborn.

        Capacity building of health care providers through training programmes in basic and comprehensive obstetric care, skilled attendance at birth, Integrated Management of Neo-natal and Childhood Illness (IMNCI) and Navjaat Shishu Suraksha Karyakaram (NSSK), facility & home based newborn care, etc.

        Name Based web enabled tracking of pregnant women & children to ensure optimal antenatal, intranatal and postnatal care to pregnant women and care to new-borns, infants and children.

        Under the National Iron+ Initiative, Iron and Folic Acid supplementation to pregnant, lactating women and to children and adolescents for prevention and treatment of anaemia

        Identifying the severely anaemic cases in pregnant women and children at sub centres and PHCs for their timely management

        To tackle the problem of anaemia due to malaria particularly in pregnant women and children, Long Lasting Insecticide Nets (LLINs) and Insecticide Treated Bed Nets (ITBNs) are being distributed in endemic areas.

        Exclusive breastfeeding for first six months and promotion of appropriate infant and young child feeding practices

        Engagement of more than 8.8 lakhs Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) to generate demand and facilitate accessing of health care services by the community.

        Home Based Newborn Care (HBNC) has been initiated through ASHA to improve new born care practices at the community level and for early detection and referral of sick new born babies.

        Village Health and Nutrition Days in rural areas as an outreach activity, for provision of maternal and child health services and creating awareness on maternal and child care including health and nutrition education.

        Universal Immunization Program (UIP) against seven diseases for all children.

·                    Vitamin A supplementation for children aged 6 months to 5 years.

·                   Janani Shishu Suraksha Karyakaram (JSSK) has been launched in 2011, which entitles all pregnant women delivering in public health institutions to absolutely free and no expense delivery including Caesarean section.  The initiative stipulates free drugs, diagnostics, blood and diet, besides free transport from home to institution, between facilities in case of a referral and drop back home. Similar entitlements are available for sick newborns and infants accessing public health institutions for treatment.

·                   To sharpen the focus on vulnerable and marginalized populations in underserved areas, 184 High Priority Districts have been identified for implementation of Reproductive Maternal Newborn Child Health+ Adolescent (RMNCH+A) interventions for achieving improved maternal and child health outcomes.  

 

The State / UT-wise allocation of funds and their utilization under Maternal & Child Health Programme during last 3 years is given in table  below:-  

 

 

Click Here to See Table

 

This was stated by Shri Ghulam Nabi Azad, Union Minister for Health and Family Welfare in a written reply to the Rajya Sabha today.

*********

MV/GM/BK