Panchagavya is a classic collective name of five products obtained from cow viz milk, curd, ghee, urine and dung. Medicinal uses of Panchagavya and its individual ingredients including cow urine are mentioned in the authoritative books of Ayurveda listed in the First Schedule of the Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940. Its therapeutic uses in Ayurveda include Krimi Roga, Kushtha, Kandu, Shoola, Gulma, Udara Roga, Anaha, Shotha, Pandu, Kamala, Vasti Roga, Kasa, Shavasa, Atisara, Mutraroga etc. Cow urine is ingredient of several Ayurvedic formulations and also used as adjuvant with medicinal formulations and for pharmaceutical processing called Shodhana (Purification) and Bhavana (Triturition) of medicinal materials. ******
Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences (CCRAS), an autonomous Ayurvedic research organization of Central Government, has undertaken study to evaluate the immune-modulatory activity and safety/toxicity of Panchgavya Ghrita, which is an Ayurvedic formulation made from cow’s five products and mentioned in Ayurvedic classical texts and Ayurvedic Formulary of India, Part I. Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) through its constituent laboratories has conducted research studies in collaboration with Go Vigyan Anusandhan Kendra, Nagpur on cow urine distillate for its antioxidant and bio-enhancing properties on anti-infective and anti-cancer agents and nutrients. Four US Patents have been secured since 2002 and one pharmaceutical product containing cow urine distillate with anti-oxidant property is available in the market.
Out of 7835 licensed Ayurvedic drug manufacturing units in the country, many Ayurvedic drugs manufacturing companies manufacture medicinal formulations made from Panchgavya or cow’s products. States of Punjab, Kerala, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha and Haryana have reported to have 229, 200, 5, 3, 3 and 2 pharmaceutical units respectively, which are manufacturing Panchagvya therapy products. Manufacturing of Ayurvedic medicinal products for sale and their quality control is regulated under the provisions of Drugs & Cosmetics Act, 1940 and the Rules, 1945. License from concerned State Licensing Authority is required and observance of prescribed Good Manufacturing Practices is mandatory to manufacture medicinal products. Norms of labeling and shelf life or date of expiry are also prescribed in the Drugs & Cosmetics Rules, 1945. Systems for mandatory certification of GMP by the State Licensing Authority and voluntary certification of quality of products by Drugs Controller General and Quality Council of India are in place.
Panchagavya and its ingredients are part of the course curricula of Ayurvedic studies at degree and post-graduation levels. Opportunities of postgraduate and postdoctoral research as well as extramural research on Panchagavya are available to the interested scholars and scientists. Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences has conducted a National Seminar on Panchagavya Chikitsa in the year 2014 for promotion and awareness building and brought out a compilation document of published research papers on Panchagvya and its ingredients. The published research papers on Panchagavya have been uploaded in the ‘AYUSH Research Portal’ for ready access to the public.
This information was given by the Minister of State, AYUSH(IC), Shri Shripad Yesso Naik in a written reply to a question in Lok Sabha today.