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English Release 1-March 2015
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Previous Date

Ministry of Human Resource Development19-December, 2008 11:15 IST
Initiatives of Human Resource Development Ministry During 2008




The Constitutional (Eighty Sixth) Amendment Act, 2002 notified on 13th December 2002, inserted Article 21-A in the Constitution, which provides that ‘the State shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of six to fourteen years in such manner as the State may, by law, determine’. Section 1(2) of the Constitutional (Eighty Sixth) Amendment Act, 2002 provides that ‘it shall come into force on such date as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette appoint’.

‘The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Bill, 2008’ was introduced in the Rajya Sabha on 15.12.2008. The Notification of the Constitution (86th Amendment) Act, 2002 would be issued in the official Gazette after "The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Bill, 2008" is enacted by the Parliament.

The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Bill, 2008 provides for:

(i)                   The right of children to free and compulsory education till completion of elementary education in a neighbourhood school. It clarifies that ‘compulsory education’ means obligation of the appropriate government to provide free elementary education and ensure compulsory admission, attendance and completion of elementary education to every child in the six to fourteen age group. It makes provisions for a non-admitted child to be admitted to an age appropriate class.

(ii)                 It specifies the duties and responsibilities of appropriate Governments, local authority and parents in providing free and compulsory education, and sharing of financial and other responsibilities between the Central and State Governments

(iii)             It lays down the norms and standards relating inter alia to Pupil Teacher Ratios (PTRs), buildings and infrastructure, school working days, teacher working hours. 

(iv)                It provides for rational deployment of teachers by ensuring that the specified pupil teacher ratio is maintained for each school, rather than just as an average for the State or District or Block, thus ensuring that there is no urban-rural imbalance in teacher postings. It also provides for prohibition of deployment of teachers for non-educational work, other than decennial census, elections to local authority, state legislatures and parliament, and disaster relief.

(v)                  It provides for appointment of appropriately trained teachers, i.e. teachers with the requisite entry and academic qualifications;

(vi)                It prohibits (i) physical punishment and mental harassment, (ii) screening procedures for admission of children, (iii) capitation fees, (iv) private tuition by teachers, (v) running of schools without recognition,

(vii)               It provides for the following penalties:

                   a.                        For charging capitation fee = fine upto 10 times the capitation fee charged,

                   b.                        For resorting to screening during admission = Rs 25,000 for first contravention; Rs 50,000 for each subsequent contravention,

                   c.                        For running a school without recognition = fine upto Rs one lakh, and in case of continuing contravention Rs 10,000 for each day during which the contravention continues

(viii)             It provides for development of curriculum in consonance with the values enshrined in the Constitution, and which would ensure the all-round development of the child, building on the child’s knowledge, potentiality and talent and making the child free of fear, trauma and anxiety through a system of child friendly and child centred learning.

(ix)               It provides for protection and monitoring of the child’s right to free and compulsory education and redressal of grievances by the National and State Commissions for Protection of Child Rights, which shall have the powers of a civil court. 

The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Bill, 2008 would lead to significant reform in the Elementary Education System and would ensure Universalisation of Elementary Education of satisfactory and equitable quality.

Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan

Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) programme was started in 2001-02 to universalize elementary education in the country, in a time bound manner. The programme seeks to provide access, equity, retention and quality in the area of elementary education.

Financial progress during 10th Plan & 11th Plan

The total outlay for the 10th Plan was Rs.17000 crores. The releases by the Central Government and expenditures during the 10th Plan were as follows:-

(Rs. in Crores)


GOI Budget

GOI Releases

Actual Expenditure

(Out of total funds available)


























o        In 2007-08, GOI released Rs.11480.61 crore to the States/UTs against which the expenditure was Rs.15565.57 crore.

o        Upto 25.11.08 against BE 2008-09 of Rs.13100 crore, Rs.7611.27 crore (58.10%) have been released to the States/UTs.

Physical Progress against key inputs of SSA since inception of the programme:




Cumulative Targets since inception including 2008-09


Cumulative Achievement upto 30.09.08


Opening of New Schools


261562 (85.79%) Opened


Construction of school buildings


212677 (85.73%) Completed & in Progress


Construction of additional classrooms


883479 (94.01%) Completed & in Progress


Drinking water facilities


182539 (94.58%) Completed & in Progress


Construction of Toilets


247071 (93.36%)

Completed & in Progress


Teacher appointment

12.27 lakh

9.66 lakh (78.8%)



Teacher training (20 days)


(Annual 2008-09)

1824475 (45%)



Supply of Free Textbooks

8.97 crore

(Annual 2008-09)

8.11 Cr. (90%)



KGBV Schools


2159 (83%)



Area Intensive &  Madrassa Modernization Programme (AIMMP):

 The Madrassas Modernization and Area Intensive components of erstwhile scheme of Area Intensive &  Madrassa Modernization Programme (AIMMP) has been revised as a  distinct schemes. as detailed below:


(i) The component of madrassa modernization has been revised w.e.f.  November, 2008 as "The Scheme for Providing Quality Education in Madrassas (SPQEM)" to bring about qualitative improvement in madrassas and enable children to attain standards of the national education system in formal education subjects.

An outlay of Rs.325 crore has been provided for the revised scheme of SPQEM for the 11th Plan period, which can be enhanced, to Rs. 625 crore subject to further availability of funds. About 6000 madrassas,  18000 madrassa teachers and  7 lakh children are expected to be covered under the scheme.


(ii) The component of Area Intensive has been revised as the scheme for Infrastructure Development in Minority Institutions (IDMI) and has been operationalised  w.e.f December, 2008 to provide augmented  infrastructure in private aided/unaided minority schools/ institutions in order to enhance quality of education to minority children  with an outlay of Rs.125 crore in the 11th  Plan, the revised scheme is expected to assist about 400 minority  schools/institutions.


During the current financial year, 2008-2009 Rs. 2700.02 lakh have been released for 4597 Madrassas in the states of Chattisgarh, Maharashtra, UP and Madhya Pradesh under madrassa modernization component and  Rs. 25.00 lakh has been released to UP state under area intensive component of AIMMP which  is  49.55% against the outlay of Rs. 55.00 crore of the scheme..


 MDM scheme:


            With a view to encouraging enrolment, retention and attendance in elementary schools and simultaneously improving nutritional levels among children, the National Programme of Nutritional Support to Primary Education (NP-NSPE) was launched as a Centrally Sponsored Scheme on 15th August 1995, initially in 2408 blocks in the country. The Scheme has been periodically strengthened and broadened its coverage and now is available to all children of classes I to VIII attending government and government aided schools and AIE/EGS centres. The Scheme covers 11.97 crore children in 12.79 lakh schools.


            During this year, string emphasis has been laid on effective monitoring of the Scheme, improve the infrastructure for preparation of mid-day meal in schools and to review certain of the components. Apart from the monitoring done by the designated 41 Monitoring Institutions, the Department has been constantly interacting with the state representatives for improving the implementation of the Scheme. Four Regional Review meetings have been conducted during the year with the state governments of the North East, North, South and West Regions. Field visits have also been conducted to obtain first-hand knowledge of the working of the Scheme. These steps have led to improvement in the implementation process. The Department is also in the process of developing an MIS for strengthening the monitoring mechanism.


            The Department has undertaken a review of the cooking cost norms as states were facing difficulties in providing the stipulated meal and had requested for appropriate enhancement of the assistance for cooking cost. Similarly, many of the Special category states were finding the present Central assistance for transportation of food grains insufficient to meet the actual costs of transportation, especially in respect of areas with hilly and difficult terrain. The Department has also undertaken review of this component of Central assistance.           



  • As against an allocation of Rs.4, 325 crore during the 10th Plan the allocation for the 11th Plan for secondary education has been enhanced to Rs.53550 crore.
  • A National Merit-cum-Means Scholarships Scheme for award 1 lakh scholarships to Class 9 students every years @ Rs.6000 per year has been launched in 2008.
  • A new centrally sponsored scheme to establish one high quality model school in each block of the country to serve as schools of excellence has been launched from 2008.
  • A “National Scheme of Incentive to Girls for Secondary Education”, to provide a one time incentive mainly for SC & ST girls has been launched in 2008.
  • A new centrally sponsored scheme to set up girls’ hostels in about 3,500 educationally backward blocks has been launched in 2008-09.  Under this scheme priority will be given to girls belonging to SC/ST/OBC/ Minority communities.
  • Setting up of 20 Navodaya Vidyalayas in districts having a large concentration of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes has been sanctioned.  10 Schools will be set up in districts having a large concentration of Scheduled Castes and the remaining 10 in districts having large concentration of Scheduled Tribes.
  • The scheme of Integrated Education for Disabled Children has been restructured to focus on children with disability at secondary stage.
  • 9 new Kendriya Vidyalayas have been opened in 2008-09.


1 new Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalayas have been sanctioned, and 6 new Vidyalayas made functional in 2008-09.




1.   A series of consultations and review meetings have been held over the course of the last year in order to redesign the strategy of the National Literacy Mission for basic literacy and continuing education, including inter alia:

i.                     Planning Commission held a Consultative Meeting on 12th June 2008 to discuss the 11th Plan strategies on Adult Education.

ii.                   The National Consultation organized in NUEPA on 26th June 2008 to recommended that adult education be viewed as a continuum from basic literacy to continuing education. It recommended merger of the different stages into a single programme, with concurrent and parallel planning and provisioning for basic literacy and continuing education, so that learners could transit from basic literacy to self-reliant learning levels without interruption. It also made significant recommendation on the volunteer mode, since literacy movements, the world over, have been people’s movements, driven by altruism, selflessness and voluntarism.

iii.                  The series of state-wise review meetings with Education Secretaries conducted during June-July this year indicated that concern for the literacy programme stills exists. There is however, need for significant systemic reform in order to revive the literacy programmes.

iv.                  The inter-departmental meetings with Ministries/Departments of Panchayati Raj, Rural Development, Health and Family Welfare, Women and Child Development, and other related Ministries revealed the enormous scope for linking literacy with PRIs, SHGs and such agencies to augment the resources for literacy. 

2.         In pursuance of the decision taken in the meeting of the General Body of the National Literacy Mission Authority, a Sub-Committee was constituted in April 2008 to suggest the ways and means to implement the NLM’s strategy for the 11th Plan. The Sub committee made the following recommendations:

i.               Caution against quick fix solutions to achieving high literacy rate that would in the long run not be sustainable.


ii.             NLM should retain a gender focus in its literacy programmes, with greater attention to women from SC, ST and minority groups.

iii.            Payment of honorarium to volunteers would be financially unviable. The literacy movement has been, and should continue to be, driven by altruism and selflessness. NLM should ensure that it designs newer ways of sustaining volunteer interest and motivation, and enable them to understand the larger goal of social change for the country. 


iv.            In respect of very remote and far-flung villages, where no educated person is available for transacting teaching learning in volunteer mode, NLM may consider payment of honorarium to a person to reside in the village for a period of approximately two years to provide learning opportunities to people in the village.


v.              In addition to volunteer based approach to basic literacy, NLM should take up residential literacy courses of different durations, mainly at the block/cluster level.


vi.            NLM must ensure that mobilisation and environment-building activities are not viewed as one-time activities, but permeate the entire programme in all its aspects, including survey, training, teaching learning process and assessment.


vii.           NLM should set up a Committee to look into curricular equivalence for basic literacy, continuing education, as also equivalency programmes.


viii.         NLM should set up institutionalized, permanent centres, which would take responsibility for basic literacy and organize a range of continuing education activities.


ix.           Convergence with programmatic interventions under NREGA, SGSY, TSC, SHGs, NHRM and RTI is the key to the success of the literacy programme.


x.             Full time staff should be available at state, district, block and centre level for undertaking the multifarious tasks of basic literacy, continuing education and equivalency in a time bound manner


3.         Inputs from the various consultations as also the recommendations of the Sub Committee have contributed to redesigning the strategy for adult education, which is expected to be considered by the Expenditure Finance Committee (EFC) shortly and thereafter by the Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs (CCEA). 


4.         In preparation of approvals of the revised strategy for basic literacy and continuing education the Executive Committee of the National Literacy Mission constituted the following Sub-Missions: (i) Mobilisation, environment building and convergence, (ii) Curricular Equivalence, (iii) Training and Pedagogy, (iv) Media and Communication, (v) Monitoring, Evaluation and Assessment.



  1. Six new Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs), one each in Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan, Orissa, Gujarat and Punjab have been set up during XI Plan. Classes have been started from the academic session 2008-09 either through temporary premises or from the campuses of the mentor IITs.
  1. One new Indian Institute of Management (IIM) namely Rajiv Gandhi Indian Institute of Management (RGIIM) has been set up at Shillong in Meghalaya. Classes have been started from the current academic session 2008-09.
  1. Five new Indian Institutes of Science Education & Research (IISERs) have been set up at Kolkata, Pune, Mohali, Bhopal and Thiruvananthapuram during XI Plan. While three IISERs at Kolkata, Pune and Mohali had already started functioning from their temporary premises earlier,  two at Bhopal and Thiruvananthapuram have started their Session from 2008-09.   
  1. Two new Schools of Planning & Architecture (SPAs) have been set up at Bhopal in Madhya Pradesh and Vijayawada in Andhra Pradesh.p of two new SPAs.  t up at Bhopal and Vijaywadaya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Tamil Nadu has .  Classes have started from the academic session 2008-09 through temporary premises.
  1. Admission in National Institutes of Technology (NITs) is based on AIEEE conducted by CBSE by allocating 50% of the seats to the States where the NITs are located and the remaining 50% used to be earmarked for other States / UTs till 2007.  From 2008 onwards, these remaining 50% of the seats are now to be filled up on All India merit basis, as a major policy shift.
  1. One new Central University, namely Indira Gandhi National Tribal University has been established at Amarkantak in Madhya Pradesh under an Act of Parliament.  
    1. The Indira Gandhi National Tribal University at Amarkantak is a teaching and affiliating university for facilitating and promoting avenues of higher education and research facilities for the tribal population of the country.  The university has started its academic programme in a modest way, with the help of guest faculty and contractual appointees.  Admissions to B.A. (Hon.), B. Com (Hon.) and BBA courses have since taken place for the academic session 2008-09.
  1. The Pay Review Committee constituted for teachers in higher education submitted its report which was referred to an Empowered Committee constituted on 10th October, 2008.  The Central Government has accepted the recommendations of the Empowered Committee.  Consequently, pay and service conditions in Colleges and Universities have been substantially improved in order to attract and retain talented persons in the teaching career.
  1. Assistance for the establishment of 374 colleges in districts having gross enrolment ratio in higher education lower than the national average.  374 such districts have been identified in the country and UGC has been asked to facilitate the establishment of these colleges as the constituent units through the State Universities and action is being taken to establish them for which UGC will release a grant of Rs.2.67 crores for each of the degree colleges. 
  1. A new Scheme has been started to cover top 2% of the student population of class XII (equally divided between boys and girls on the basis of class XII results) by providing them with scholarship of Rs.1000/- per month for 10 months in a year for under-graduate level studies and Rs.2000/- per month for 10 months in a year for post-graduate level studies.
  1. Decision taken to liberalise research visa procedure for foreign students.
  1. Immediately after the vacation of stay by the Hon’ble Supreme Court in April 2008, directions were given for implementation of reservation in all Central Educational Institutions. Special drive was also made to ensure that IITs/IIMs fill up the entire reserved category seats by organising preparatory classes as well as remedial coaching. Rs.2522 crore has also been provided during 2008-09 to expand the capacity of the Central Educational Institutions by 54% so that there is no reduction in the availability of the general category seats due to the implementation of 27% OBC reservations. 
  1. Approval for establishment of Central Institute of Classical Tamil has been accorded by the Government and it has started functioning during the current year.
  2. National Translation Mission Programme has been launched by the Government for translation of existing knowledge books in English into various languages in the 8th Scheduled of the Constitution.
  3. AICTE has permitted evening shifts in the engineering colleges and polytechnics.
  1. The celebrations of the first ‘National Education Day’ were inaugurated by the President on 11.11.2008 at Vigyan Bhawan, New Delhi, in memory of the great freedom fighter, visionary and the first Education Minister of Independent India, Maulana Abul Kalam Azad.



(Release ID :45901)

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