The study of Water Quality data of 10
years (2000-09) at 396 locations in all the major river basins of India by the
Central Water Commission has revealed that the water of some stretches of Ganga, Yamuna, Chambal, Sone and Wainganga are not fit for drinking purposes. Salient features of the study are enclosed at
Annexure. In addition, Central Pollution
Control Board alongwith State Pollution Control
Boards monitors water quality of rivers in terms of Dissolved Oxygen,
Bio-chemical Oxygen Demand and Fecal Coliforms. Based on
Bio-chemical Oxygen Demand levels, Central Pollution Control Board has identified
150 polluted river stretches on 121 rivers in the country.
For improving the quality of the water,
both the Central and the State Governments have taken various steps such as
interception and diversion of raw sewage, setting up sewage treatment plants,
creation of low-cost sanitation facilities, setting up of electric/improved
wood crematoria, installation of Common Effluent
Treatment Plants and river front development.
Under the National River Conservation Plan, which aims at ameliorating
the water quality, projects for an amount of Rs. 8847.22 crores
have been sanctioned as on October 31, 2012, against which Rs. 4559.60 crores has been released to the State Governments.
This information was given by Union Water
Resources Minister Shri Harish Rawat in the Lok Sabha today in
reply to a written question .
of River Water”-Salient Features of the Study
The report attempts to provide the water
quality scenario of our rivers viz-a-viz Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS) and other Standards.
The report is based on the average values observed during the last 10 years at
CWC monitoring Stations.
values of pH greater than 8.5 are observed during the Monsoon season (July –
September) at 2 water quality stations at Seondha and
Gummanur. During the non-monsoon season (October –
June), high values of pH greater than 8.5 are found at 12 water quality
stations in 8 states. (BIS recommended range for pH is 6.5 to 8.5).
values of Electrical Conductance (EC) in excess of 3000 micro Siemens per
centimeter (μS/cm) are observed at 3 water
quality stations spread in 3 states. (BIS recommended limit for EC is 750 μS/cm that can be extended to
3000 μS/cm in case of no alternate source
water quality station in the state of Tamilnadu has
Chloride concentration in excess of 1000 milligram per litre
(mg/l). (BIS recommended limit for Chloride concentration is 250 mg/l that can
be extended to 1000 mg/l in case of no alternate source available).
having Fluoride concentration of more than 1.5 mg/l is not suitable for
drinking purposes. Fluoride concentration more the 1.5 mg/l is observed at 15
water quality stations in 10 states. (BIS recommended limit for Fluoride
concentration is 1.0 mg/l that can be extended to 1.5 mg/l in case of no
alternate source available).
the water quality stations of CWC have Nitrate concentration within the
having Sulphate concentration more than 400 mg/l is
not suitable for drinking purposes. Sulphate
concentration more than 400 mg/l is observed during Monsoon season at one water
quality station in the state of Madhya Pradesh.
permissible Iron concentration in surface water is less than 1.0 mg/litre as per the BIS Standard for drinking water. High
concentration of iron greater than 1.0 mg/l is observed at 22 water quality
stations in 6 states.
the water quality stations of CWC have Calcium concentration within the
having Magnesium concentration of more than 100 mg/l is not suitable for
drinking purposes. Relatively high value of Magnesium in excess of 100 mg/l is
observed at one water quality station in the state of Tamilnadu.
has recommended 5.0 mg/l concentration of Dissolved Oxygen (DO) for outdoor
bathing. Dissolved Oxygen below 5.0 mg/l is observed at 17 water quality
stations in 9 states.
has recommended 3.0 mg/l concentration of Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) for
outdoor bathing. Relatively high values of BOD (more than 3.0 mg/l) are
observed at 37 water quality stations in 14 states.
per CPCB guidelines, for outdoor bathing, the Total Coliforms
count should be equal to or less than 500 Most Probable Number per Hundred
milliliter (MPN/100ml). Most of the middle and lower stretches of Indian rivers
are high in Total Coliforms. It has been reported
that stretches which are high in BOD have high Total Coliforms
and Fecal Coliforms also.
the water quality stations of CWC have Arsenic concentration within the
permissible limit prescribed by BIS.